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Back in the United States, saw the creation of the Schaefer Air Service, the country's first air ambulance service.


Para-medicine was still decades away, and unless the patient was accompanied by a physician or nurse, they operated primarily as medical transportation services. The first dedicated use of helicopters by U.

While popularly depicted as simply removing casualties from the battlefield which they didhelicopters also expanded convencion de ginebra 1958 services to moving critical patients to more advanced hospital ships once initial emergency treatment in field hospitals had occurred.

The wounded were transported on basket stretchers attached to the top of the landing gear on the outside of the small helicopter Figure They were covered with blankets in a nearly futile effort to maintain body heat and prevent wound contamination.

It is estimated that more convencion de ginebra 1958 20, injured soldiers were evacuated by helicopter.

While there were some technological advances in medicine during that period, the convencion de ginebra 1958 is largely attributed to use of the helicopter to evacuate patients to definitive care more quickly. The external litter, however, did not allow for medical care during transport.

Affectionately known as the Huey, this aircraft was large enough to hold patients inside, where medical personnel could begin treatment during the flight to a field hospital. The mass deployment of these aircraft as medevac units reduced the average delay until treatment to one hour.

The ability to carry patients inside the aircraft was a key element in the reduction of mortality and morbidity. Military medics performed procedures previously done only convencion de ginebra 1958 physicians: This care, coupled with the initiation of specialty hospitals for the treatment of different types of injuries, resulted in a reduction in the mortality rate to 1 death per casualties.

The first known civilian application of a medical helicopter was in in Etna, California. Bill Mathews, a businessman, started a helicopter service to ferry patients for Dr. Granville Ashcraft, the town's only physician. The town druggist also used the helicopter to deliver drugs during emergencies.

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Byin Vietnam, the use of specially trained medical corpsmen and helicopters as ambulances led U. This conclusion inspired the first experiments with the use of civilian paramedics in the world. Two programs were implemented in the U. Three helicopters were purchased through a federal grant and located strategically in the north, central, and southern areas of the state.

Upon termination of the grant, the program was considered a success and each of the three convencion de ginebra 1958 was given the opportunity to continue the helicopter operation.

Only the one located in Hattiesburg did so, and it was therefore established as the first civilian air medical program in the United States. This was an experiment by the Department of Transportation to convencion de ginebra 1958 the feasibility of using military helicopters to augment existing civilian emergency medical services.

These programs were highly successful at establishing the need for such services. Also, in the state of Maryland received a grant to purchase Bell Jet Ranger helicopters and started one of the nation's first medevac programs.

The four helicopters, manned by paramedics, were strategically based throughout the state for quick response to emergency situations.

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When they were not carrying patients, the helicopters were used for law enforcement and traffic control. On November 1,the first permanent civil air ambulance helicopter, Christoph 1, entered service at the Hospital of Harlaching, Munich, Germany.

The first civilian, hospital-based medical helicopter program in the United States began operation in Anthony Central Hospital in Denver, Colorado. In Ontario, Canada, the convencion de ginebra 1958 ambulance program began inand featured a convencion de ginebra 1958 system of care.

The system, operated by the Ontario Ministry of Health, began with a single rotor-wing aircraft based in Toronto.

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