The Ethics & Compliance Initiative is comprised of three nonprofit organizations: the Ethics Research Center, Paul McNulty Glenn Stastny. GLENN RAYP Consumers can express their concern about the ethical behavior of companies by means of ethical buying and consumer. Ethics: A Class Manual in Moral Philosophy. Front Cover. Paul Joseph Glenn. B. Herder Book Company, - Ethics - pages.


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This was the line of argument pursued, for example, by Thomas Hobbes The possibility exists that what we conscientiously believe is wrong and that those holding conscientious paul glenn ethics opposite to ours are right.

Introduction to Philosophy - E-bok - Paul J Glenn | Bokus

Therefore, there is a reason for not forcing anyone to believe in something or to engage in behaviors that might turn out to be morally wrong.

The same argument from ignorance or from humility paul glenn ethics also put forward by John Locke in his Second Letter Concerning Toleration.

Locke had to rely on this argument as an alternative strategy to defend freedom paul glenn ethics conscience after the Anglican priest Jonas Proast pointed out that compulsion can actually change personal beliefs as Augustine had arguedand that therefore the argument from ineffectiveness that Locke had used in his first Letter fails Sorabji A version of the argument from ignorance can also be found in contemporary defenses of conscientious objection in an age where pluralism of worldviews is acknowledged and actually supported.

As put by Mill, [c]omplete liberty of contradicting and disproving our opinion, is the very condition which justifies us in assuming its truth for purposes of action; and on no other terms can a being with human faculties have any rational assurance of being right.

If this interpretation is correct, article 18 does not seem to raise any paul glenn ethics philosophical or practical problem today, as very few people today would deny freedom in matters of inward conviction. One example is conscientious objection to the military service where conscription is in place.

Although originally conscientious objection to war was mainly a religious issue the Quakers were the most famous group of conscientious objectors to warin more recent times the objection to war has been put forward and granted without explicit reference to any religious justification Moskos and Chamber As most States have now abolished conscription, appeals to freedom of conscience and to conscientious objection today can be found mainly in debates in medical ethics with regard to health practitioners who conscientiously object to performing medical procedures they morally oppose, such as abortions for overviews of the debate in medical paul glenn ethics, see Wicclair ; Wester According to those who are against a right to conscientious objection, professional paul glenn ethics trump any value conscience might have and any principle that might justify conscientious objection qua conscientious e.

However, if it is the validity or the soundness of the reasons provided which is considered relevant for the justification of conscientious objection, it seems that the value of conscience and the principle of freedom of conscience are no longer at stake.


paul glenn ethics The interesting question in this case would be whether a test can be devised that can reliably track genuine conscientious objections. Conclusion There is no such a thing as the notion of conscience, both in a philosophical and in a psychological sense.

As we have seen, the concept paul glenn ethics conscience has been given different interpretations throughout history, sometimes on the basis of underlying systematic philosophical theories of the mind and of morality, and sometimes serving religious or political purposes.

Ethics: A Class Manual in Moral Philosophy - Paul J. Glenn - Google книги

This lack of uniformity is not only a paul glenn ethics for historians and theoretical philosophers. Because it cannot be immediately clear what we are talking about when we talk of conscience, of freedom of conscience, or of conscientious objection, it is important that clarity is made every time conscience is appealed to in different branches of applied philosophy particularly medical ethics and in public debates alike.

This entry has presented a conceptual map, rather than a historical account, of conscience, which can provide some guidance for those engaged in this clarificatory task.

One of the benefits of clarifying concepts, and clarifying them in the different circumstances in which they are used, is their subsequent demystification. Conscience needs to be demystified, since it is one of those concepts that paul glenn ethics to elicit reverence rather than questions or an interest in further inquiry.

This attitude is paul glenn ethics displayed in many legislative approaches dealing with the notion of conscience; in particular, legislations about conscientious objection in health care typically grant doctors a right to object to performing certain professional activities e.

Ethics: A Class Manual in Moral Philosophy - Paul Joseph Glenn - Google книги

This entry has distinguished four main understandings of conscience, drawing on the philosophical tradition of paul glenn ethics concept. Whether the concept is to be understood as a faculty for self-knowledge and self-assessment, or as having an epistemic function in the sphere of morality, or as a motivational force, or again as a set of self-identifying moral beliefs, or a combination of any of these characterizations, it is important to have clear in mind what paul glenn ethics we are talking about when we talk of conscience and of freedom of conscience in each circumstance.

Far from being a conversation-stopper, conscience can only find its proper place in philosophical and in public discussion if its philosophical and psychological aspects are teased out, defined and assessed.

Appeals to conscience can only be part paul glenn ethics philosophical, political, and legal discussion if they are seen as the start, not the end of discussions.


Oxford University Press,pp. Greene, Joshua,Moral Tribes: Hobbes, Thomas,Leviathan, London.


Official English translation at http: Official English translation at available online. Cambridge University Press, Milton and Philip Milton ed.

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